“The circulation of 1920s Black movement anthems offered a potent political counterpoint to the mass-produced “race records” of the time in that they publicly grappled with how the “race” of “race records” was (and should be) constituted. Through that, they liberated the collapsed Black identity of the marketplace by articulating associations and communities of both race (“ a different way of living”) and sound (“ a different way of hearing”).”
Redmond, Shana L.. Anthem: Social Movements and the Sound of Solidarity in the African Diaspora (pp. 7-8). NYU Press. Kindle Edition.